The bulk handling of materials across the world and its implications for industry are the focus of a conference being held in Newcastle.
The Ninth International Conference on Bulk Materials, Handling and Transportation has attracted 150 of the world's experts in bulk material handling to the University of Newcastle.
Conference Chairman Professor Mark Jones from the University's Centre for Bulk Solids and Particulate Technologies, said the efficient handling of bulk materials helped to minimise waste.
"The mining and minerals boom in Australia has brought this technology into focus," he said.
"Transporting and storing bulk solids efficiently is becoming an increasingly important part of mining, chemical processing, food processing and manufacturing, and agricultural production.
"Inefficient practices in this field can cost the industry, and Australia, millions of dollars in lost revenue."
The conference has been organised by the Australian Society for Bulk Solids Handling, and is sponsored by the University's Centre for Bulk Solids and Particulate Technologies. It finishes tomorrow afternoon.