Article 407. The Grounds for the Termination of Obligations
1. The obligation shall be terminated in full or in part on the grounds, stipulated by the present Code, by the other laws and the other legal acts, or by the contract.
2. The termination of the obligation upon the claim of one of the parties shall be admitted only in the cases, stipulated by the law or by the contract.
Article 409. The Indemnity
By an agreement between the parties, the obligation may be terminated by way of paying an indemnity instead of the discharge (the payment of money, the transfer of the property, etc.). The amount, the term and the procedure for paying the indemnity shall be established by the parties.
Article 414. Termination of the Obligation by the Novation
1. The obligation shall be terminated by an agreement between the parties on replacing the primary obligation, which has existed between them, with another obligation between the same persons, stipulating a different object or a different way of the discharge (the novation).
2. The novation shall not be admissible with respect to the obligations on the compensation for the harm, inflicted to the life or to the health, and also with respect to those on the alimony.
3. The novation shall terminate the additional liabilities, connected with the primary obligation, unless otherwise stipulated by the agreement between the parties.
Article 415. Forgiving the Debt
The obligation shall be terminated by the creditor's absolving the debtor from the obligations, borne by him, if this does not violate the rights of the other persons with respect to the creditor's property.
Article 450. The Grounds for the Amendment and the Cancellation of the Contract
1. The amendment and the cancellation of the contract shall be possible only by an agreement between the parties, unless otherwise stipulated by the present Code, by the other legal acts or by the contract.
2. Upon the demand of one of the parties, the contract may be amended or cancelled by the court decision only:
- in case of an essential violation of the contract by the other party;
- in the other cases, stipulated by the present Code, by the other legal acts or by the contract.
As an essential violation shall be recognized such violation of the contract by one of the parties, which entails for the other party the losses, to a considerable extent depriving it of what it could have counted upon when concluding the contract.
3. In case of the unilateral refusal to discharge the contract in full or in part, when such refusal is admitted by the law or by the agreement between the parties, the contract shall be correspondingly regarded as cancelled or as amended.