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Cosmologists investigate and form theories about the structure and characteristics of the whole universe. They use the laws of physics along with highly advanced mathematics to try to explain and analyse phenomenon such as the material components and origin of the universe and the features of gravity.

Cosmology is a niche field in which employment is competitive and the completion of published research is highly regarded. Post-graduate specialisation at a PhD level is almost essential for most roles, the majority of which exist in research and teaching, often internationally. Universities, government research facilities and observatories are the main areas of employment in this field, though some private aerospace and space technology companies also hire cosmologists.