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Nephrology is a branch of internal medicine and paediatrics dealing with the study of the function and diseases of the kidney. Nephrologists work in private and public hospitals and they specialise in diagnosing and treating problems with kidneys, high blood pressure, fluid retention, and electrolyte imbalance.

Nephrologists must have an extensive knowledge of emergency and intensive care medicine, and since many diseases affecting the kidney are systemic disorders not limited to the organ itself, they must have knowledge of other systemic diseases, such as diabetes. Most renal conditions are chronic, so Nephrologists will often treat their patients over many years and develop long-term relationships with patients and their families, meaning exceptional communication skills are necessary.

To gain accreditation, Nephrologists must complete a medicine degree, two years of hospital-based training and five years of specialist study and training.